234th Season

Yuri Butsko "The Diary of a Madman" mono-opera

Cast to be announced


Music by Yuri Butsko 
Libretto by the composer after the tale of the same name by Nikolai Gogol

Musical Director: Larisa Gergieva 
Director: Gleb Cherepanov 
Set Technologist: Aliona Belokopytova 
Costume Technologist: Yevgenia Digol 
Lighting Designer: Valentin Baikov



3 October. Aksenty Ivanovich Poprishchin, an employee in a State department, meets the daughter of His Excellency, the director of his department, on his way to work. 
4 October. Aksenty Ivanovich is sharpening quills in the director's office and meets Her Excellency once more. His soul is filled with sweet languor. 
6 November. Aksenty Ivanovich considers how he might mot be a titular counsellor at all. One day he will appear as a colonel, or even as a general, and what will Her Excellency say then? 
8 November. The head of the department explodes at Aksenty Ivanovich for running after the director's daughter so shamelessly. 
13 November. Aksenty Ivanovich attempts to learn the thoughts of the director's daughter from her dog. 
The year 2000. 43 April. The King of Spain has at last been found – it is Aksenty Ivanovich. He speaks of his rank to Her Excellency. 
No date. The day had no date. The King of Spain is sent to the palace, where water is poured on his head and he is beaten painfully with a stick.



Moscow Conservatoire student Yuri Butsko's opera after Gogol's text was first performed in 1964 at his alma mater. Following the performance the commission rebuked the composer's teacher Sergei Balacanian and Butsko was forced to leave his class. 
Today it is hard to say what so perturbed the professors. The opera's musical language was not radical for its time. Diary of a Madman, the first Soviet mono-drama (1963), was compared with other operas written for one performer – Schoenberg's Erwartung and Poulenc's La Voix humaine. The similarity lies only in the genre: in Diary there is neither German acidity and exhaustive overfalls of tension (Schoenberg), nor French haste and specific lightness and bitterness (Poulenc). Butsko composed very economically: irony, lyricism and despair are measured out in small doses. Gogol's text is presented in a measured system, in a songful arioso manner, only occasionally do we see the use of speech and whispering, and never a scream. This is a Russian tradition, one recalls the romances of Musorgsky and Rachmaninoff's The Miserly Knight, as well as Shostakovich's The Nose after Gogol. It is also Russian in the sense of the slow, almost stopped time (something particularly notable in Soviet chamber operas: later came Fried's Letters of Van Gogh and Butsko's White Nights). Gogol'stale can be read within twenty minutes, and the opera lasts exactly an hour, though it seems much longer. 
From the text of the original, Butsko extracted all the eccentricities, devilry and play on the edge of the absurd. We are left wigh high tragedy, pure humanistic pathos, calling us to empathise: "the small man" of Russian literature is its great hero. In this sense, Diary of a Madman entirely fitted in with Soviet tradition, this was exactly how Gogolwas taught at literature classes, avoiding the surrealist layers of his texts. The music reveals the story of Poprishchin not from the point of view of a surrealist writer and not from the point of view of the protagonist – we are hearing a story, knowing in advance of the sad outcome and from the first notes feeling sorry for the misfortunate official. Neither is it by chance that the last phrase of the tale ("the Bey of Algiers has a wart under his nose) is not included in the libretto. In the finale of the opera we are left with an arioso-lament, the endless Russian road, the suffering protagonist making his way on it – and the bells ring out a prayer for him as he dies, and all together melts into eternity. 
Bogdan Korolyok

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